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Stark Effect

The Stark Effect is shown here in the splitting and shifting of spectral lines in hydrogen under the influence of an external electric field. What is the Stark Effect? This article discusses the spectroscopic effect of strong electric fields known as the Stark effect, named for Johannes Stark, the first to experimentally demonstrate the effect.

Vector Form for Snell's Law

Snell's Law in Vector Form. Usually described in simple single plane coordinates, Snell's law is much more useful when you consider possible refraction out of the plane. To accomplish calculations of this type requires a vector form of the law of refraction.
Snell's law is the one of the first things you learn in an optics class. It is the basis of all refractive optics from your eyeglasses to microscopes and telescopes and even much of the information super highway made of fiber optics and the associated components. But the textbook version of Snell's law always seems to be in a contrived coordinate system with all the light travel in the plane of the page. To use a coordinate system that is more natural to the situation, you need a vector form for Snell's law.

The Physics of Bowling

The physics of Bowling described by someone that loves the game.
If you really want some insight into the physics of bowling then ask a physicist with a passion for bowling. Dr. Dave Terry, otherwis known as Dr. 300, is a wide ranging physicist with a real passion for bowling. In this pdf presentation, contributed by Dr. Terry, you will learn some of the basic mechanics of the game from a serious physicist's point of view.


Photosynthesis depends heavily on quantum effects.

Laser Beam Propagation

Basics of Laser Beam Propagation. Here are some of the formulas and descriptions of wave phenomena in coherent beams. This is a work in progress, so please have patience, but go ahead and tell me if you see something wrong!

Physics Basics Series

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